who are turks?

The first historical references to the Turks appear in Chinese records of about 200 B.C. These records refer to tribes called the Hsiung-nu, an early form of the Western term Hun, who lived in an area bounded by the Altay Mountains, Lake Baikal, and the northern edge of the Gobi Desert and are believed to have been the ancestors of the Turks. Specific references in Chinese sources in the sixth century A.D. identify the tribal kingdom called Tu-Küe located on the Orkhon River south of Lake Baikal. The khans (chiefs) of this tribe accepted the nominal suzerainty of the Tang dynasty. The earliest known example of writing in a Turkic language was found in that area and can be dated from about A.D. 730.

Other Turkish nomads from the Altay region founded the Göktürk Empire, a confederation of tribes under a dynasty of khans whose influence extended during the sixth to eighth centuries from the Aral Sea to the Hindu Kush in the land bridge known as Transoxania, i.e., across the Oxus River. The Göktürks are known to have been enlisted by a Byzantine emperor in the seventh century as allies against the Sassanians.

In the eighth century some Turkish tribes, among them the Oguz, moved south of the Oxus River, while others migrated west to the northern shore of the Black Sea. The year 546 is the first time the word ‘Turk’ was ever used in the history. This is the year the Gökturk Empire was established. Although it is 546 we have the Gökturks on the stage of history, it is another 1300 years we have to back in history to find the origins of Turks. As we follow the history backwards, we will go as far as 800 BC which is Iskit civilization immigrate from Tanri Mountain ranges in Central Asia to the West.

This popular movement gave reason to a great division of the Iskit race, which partly resided around the lake Aral, and the present day Southern Russia. The latter also exciled the Cimmerians to Southern Caucasia. For the next 600 years, the Iskits have stayed in Western Asia; in 204 BC Mete the Great Hun Emperor founded the Great Hun Empire, and in 177 the Hun Confederation was established with the Huns, Iskits and other tribes that were the ancestors of the Uygurs, the Gökturks, Karluks and the Kirgizs. Another 350 years passed with the spread and division of the Confederation, and the Chinese – Hun wars which made the end of the Hun Confederation.

This also gave reason to the Huns’ migration to present day Southern Kazakhstan. Beginning from 188 AD to onward, and for almost 300 years, there has been a great struggle between different races that form the Chinese and the Mongolians. Around 350 – 375, the Huns have made a movement to Front Asia and started gaining power around the River Ural and the Altay mountains. This also gave reason to the Vizigot movement to further West, as far as present day Hungaria. Attila and his brother Blida took over the Hun Empire from their father in the year 434.

In the following years, the Empire marched as far as Venice, yet Attila’s death and the Empire’s being shared between his 3 sons made the end of the Huns very shortly. In the year 546, Bumin founded the Gökturk Empire around the Altay Area, and as mentioned earlier, this was the first time the word ‘Turk’ was ever used in the history. In 552, the Empire was divided as East and West. The Gökturks have been in charge of the Altays for another 200 years.

This first 1300 years of the Turkish History is the early period when Turks have arised in Central Asia, have struggled to exist and find an id. As the Turk Empires have spread around Asia in about a few centuries, spreading over to the West has become a necessity. Moreover, Anatolia was offering a better climate and fertility compared to Central Asia. The Selcuk tribe had settled in a geopolitically important area between Anatolia and Central Asia around 1040, and this enabled them to control the newly conquered lands. Shortly, the Selcuks have gained power, and in 1071, Alp Arslan, the Selcuk Empire, defeated the army of the Byzantine Diogenes.

This is a very important year in the history of the Turks as it was opening the doors a new land to Turks, which could well mean the end of the struggle that was going on for years in Asia. In a very short period the Selcuks have invaded as far as the West Coast of Anatolia. Once the gates were open, there was a serious population marching to Anatolia, thus, in a very short time Anatolia formed a feudal structure as each big family was declaring its own soverignty. This started in Eastern Anatolia, yet in a very short time came as far as present day Aegean and Marmara regions of Anatolia.

The 16 Great Turkish Empires:

1) The “GREAT HUN EMPIRE” – 204 B.C – 216 A.D Founder – Mete (Bagatir) Area – At the north, Siberia; south, Tibet – Kashmir; east, Pacific Ocean; west, Caspian Sea; (Total Area – 18,000,000 Km2).

2) The “WESTERN HUN EMPIRE” – 48 – 216 A.D Founder – Panu Area – The area over present Central Asia.

3) The “EUROPEAN HUN EMPIRE” – 275 – 454 A.D Founder – Muncuk, Oktar, Rua & Aybars (brothers) Area – Southern Russia, Romania, Northern Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Chekoslovakia, Southern & Central Germany; The area from eastern France to the Ural mountains; from northern Hungary to the Byzantine Empire; (Total Area – 4,000,000 Km2).

4) The “WHITE HUN EMPIRE” – 420 – 552 A.D Founder – Aksuvar (Aksungur) Area – Half of northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan (Total Area – 3,500,000 Km2).

5) The “GÖKTURK EMPIRE” – 552 – 743 A.D Founder – Bumin Khan (Tumen) Area – The inacessible valleys of the Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area – 18,000,000 Km2).

6) The “AVAR EMPIRE” – 562 – 796 A.D Founder – Bayar Khan Area – The area between the Volga, Hungary and Bessarabia.

7) The “HAZAR EMPIRE” – 602 – 1016 A.D Founder – There are no historical data as to the original founder, however, its greatest ruler was Hakan Yusuf. Area – The Hazars who are believed to be an offshoot of the Gokturks migrated to the West and formed a state stretching from the Caucasian Mntns to the Danube and to the middle of and Southern Russia.

8) The “UYGUR EMPIRE” – 740 – 1335 A.D Founder – Kutlug Bilgekul Khan Area – Central Asia and Northern Mongolia.

9) The “KARAHAN” – 932 – 1212 A.D Founder – Saltuk Bugra Han Area – All the Trans-Oxus area including the area between the Issyk and Balkash Lakes.

10) The “GAZNELI EMPIRE” – 962 – 1183 A.D Founder – Alptekin Area – The area from the Trans-Oxus to the Ganges River, and from the shores of the Caspian to the steppes of the Pamir. (Total Area – 4,700,000 Km2).

11) The “SELCUK EMPIRE” – 1040 – 1157 A.D Founder – Seljuk Area – At the East, Balkash and Issyk Lakes and the Tarim Derya; At the West, Aegean and the Mediterranean shores; At the North, Aral Lake, Caspian Sea, Caucasian and the Black Sea; At the South, the area including Arabia and the sea Omman. (Total Area – 10,000,000 Km2).

12) The “HARZEMSHAH” – 1077 – 1231 A.D Founder – Kudrettin Mehmet (Harzemshah) Area – Persia, Southern Caucasia, Dagistan, Afghanistan and most of Central Asia. (Total Area – 5,000,000 Km2).

13) The “GOLDEN HORDE” – 1224 – 1502 A.D Founder – Batur Han Area – Eastern Europe, the Western Ural Area, the Crimea and the area to the north of the Volga.

14) The “EMPIRE OF TIMUR KHAN” – 1369 – 1501 A.D Founder – Timur Gurgani Area – At the West, Balkans; At the North, Volga shores; At the South, Indian Ocean; At the East, Central Asia.

15) The “EMPIRE OF BABUR” – 1526 – 1858 A.D Founder – Babur Shah Area – Afghanistan and India (Total Area – 2,700,000 Km2).

16) The “OTTOMAN EMPIRE” – 1299 – 1922 A.D Founder – Osman Bey Area – Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Syria, Iraq, Anatolia, Caucasia, the Crimea, Bessarabia, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece, Cyprus, Hungary, the Sudan, …and, the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea were for a time – Turkish Lakes. (Total Area – 20,000,000 Km2).


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