Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Turkish Republic and its first President, stands as a towering figure of the 20th Century. Among the great leaders of history, few have achieved so much in so short a period, transformed the life of a nation as decisively, and given such profound inspiration to the world at large.
1881 Mustafa is born in Salonica.
1893 Mustafa attends Salonica Military School.
1896 Mustafa, granded the name Kemal by his teacher, attends Manastir Military School.
1899 Mustafa Kemal attends Istanbul Military College infantry division.
1902 Mustafa Kemal graduates Military College as a lieutenant and attends the Military Academy.
1905 Mustafa Kemal graduates the academy as a staff captain and is assigned for his first duty at the 5th Army in Damascus.
1906 Mustafa Kemal is posted to the 3rd Army in Salonica.
1909 Mustafa Kemal leaves for Istanbul as the Staff Commander of the Hareket Army.
1910 Mustafa Kemal joins the Albanian operations. In the same year he represents the Turkish Army at the Picardie exercises.
1911 Mustafa Kemal is assigned at the General Chief of Staff Hq in Istanbul. The same year he promotes as a staff Major.
1912 Mustafa Kemal is assigned as Dardanelles Operation Commander.
1913 Mustafa Kemal is assigned as Sofia Military Attache.
1914 Mustafa Kemal promotes as a staff Lieutenant Colonel.
1915 Mustafa Kemal builds the 19th sub division in Eastern Thrace. The same year he promotes a staff Colonel. Later the same year he is assigned assigned as Anafartalar sub division commander. By the end of this year he will have won 3 great victories against the WWI allies in Dardanelles.
1916 Mustafa Kemal promotes as a Brigadier General.
1917 In March, Mustafa Kemal is assigned as the 2nd Army Commanding General in Diyarbakir. In June, he is assigned as the the 7th Army Commanding General in Aleppo. In September, he sends his historical letter that explains the current situtation of the country and the army to the Sultan. In October he leaves Aleppo for Istanbul and in December Prince Vahdettin and Mustafa Kemal go to Germany.
1918 Mustafa Kemal and the Prince are back from Germany. In the same year, he is assigned to several duties as the Commanding General of different armies.
1919 May 16: Mustafa Kemal leaves for Samsun on the SS Bandirma. May 19: He arrives in Samsun. May 22: He calls for the Sivas Congress in Amasya. Jul 8: He resigns from his official duties and the Ottoman Army. Jul 23: The Erzurum congress meets. Sep 4: The Sivas congress meets. Dec 7: Mustafa Kemal and the ‘Representatives Group’ arrive in Ankara. Mustafa Kemal officially protests the invasion of Istanbul by the allies, and starts for a new assembly.
1920 April 23: Turkish Grand Assembly opens. April 24: Mustafa Kemal is assigned as the chariman of the Turkish Grand Assembly. May 11: The Istanbul Government sentences Mustafa Kemal to death. May 24: The Sultan approves this decision.
1921 Aug 21: The Grand Assembly assigns Mustafa Kemal as the Commander of the Turkish Armies. Aug 23: The Sakarya War starts. Sep 13: The Sakarya War ends with Mustafa Kemal’s victory. Sep 19: Mustafa Kemal is granted the ‘Marshall’ and ‘Veteran’ titles by the Grand Assembly.
1922 Aug 26: The Great Attack starts under the command of Mustafa Kemal. Aug 30: The Great Attack ends with ‘The Great Victory’. Sep 9: The War ends with the invader armies leaving Izmir.
Sep 10: Mustafa Kemal arrives in Izmir. Nov 1: The Grand Assembly decide for the abolition of the Sultanate.
1923 Sep 11: Mustafa Kemal opens the People’s Party. Oct 29: The Decleration of the Republic. Mustafa Kemal elected as the 1st President of the Turkish Republic.
1924 Mar 1: The Grand Assembly decide to abolish the Caliphate.
1925 Aug 23: Mustafa Kemal intoduces the European hat and the fez is banned.
1927 Jul 1: Mustafa Kemal re-elected President.
1928 Aug 10: Mustafa Kemal gives his famous speech about the new Turkish Alphabet.
1931 Mustafa Kemal establishes the The Turkish Institute of History; he is also elected president for the 3rd time.
1932 Mustafa Kemal establishes the The Turkish Institute of Language.
1933 Oct 29: Mustafa Kemal gives his famous speech on the 10th anniversary of the Turkish Republic.
1934 Nov 24: The Grand Assembly grant Mustafa Kemal, the last name Atatürk, which means the father of all Turks.
1935 Mar 1st: Mustafa Kemal is elected president for the 4th time.
1938 Mar 30th: The Secretary General makes the first official announcement concerning Atatürk’s illness.
1938 Nov 10th, 09.05 a.m.: Atatürk’s death.
1938 Nov 21st: Atatürk’s body is brought temporarily to the Ethnographical Museum in Ankara.
1953 Nov 10th: Atatürk’s body is brought to the Anitkabir Mausoleum in Ankara.
1981 UNESCO announces the 100th anniversary of the birth of Atatürk be celebrated as the ‘Atatürk Year’ all over the world.